Wednesday, September 21, 2016
Times. As the train rolled out of the station, he lifted his head from the newspaper
and stared at the man directly across from him.
A tsunami - of antipathy came over him. Rohit knew this man, knew him all too well.
Their eyes locked.
As the train reached full speed, the ruckus of speeding wheels against the winding
rails and a wildly gyrating subway car filled Rohit's ears. To this frenetic beat, Rohit
effortlessly listed in his head all the reasons this man, whose eyes he stared coldly
into, was an anathema to him.
He had climbed the upper echelons of his firm using an imperious manner with his
subordinates, always making sure everyone knew he was the boss.
Despite his impoverished upbringing, he had become ostentatious. Flush with cash
from the lucrative deals he had made, he had purchased a yacht and a home in
Mumbai. He used neither. But, oh, how he liked to say he had them. Meanwhile,
Rohit knew, this man's parents were on the verge of being evicted from their rundown
tenement apartment in Allahabad.
What bothered Rohit most about this man was that he never even attempted to make amends for his evil ways.
Could this man change? Rohit did not know. He could try though.
The train screeched to Rohit's stop. He gave the man one last hard look. "See you
around," he mumbled to himself. And he knew he would, because Rohit had been
glaring at his own reflection in the glass in the metro.
It would take years of hard work and therapy, but Rohit would one day notice this
man again on the train and marvel at what a kinder person he had become.
I) Why did a tsunami of antipathy come over Rohit?
a) Because he was angry at himself and unable to stand looking at himself
b) Because the man sitting across him was his former boss who treated him badly
c) Because he wanted to read his newspaper and not be disturbed, especially by someone he disliked d) Because the guy sitting across him was financially better off than Rohit
II)Which statement makes most sense from what is said in the paragraph?
a) Rohit has few friends b) Rohit knows himself well
c) Rohit has had a difficult life d) Rohit is incapable of change
III) What was the biggest reason (stated or implied) for Rohit disliking the man in the metro?
a) The man was known to be extremely rude and domineering especially with his subordinates
b) The man was remorseless and had not made any effort to reform himself for the better
c) The man did not bother to take care of his parents who were on the verge of being evicted from their humble dwelling
d) The man did not have respect for things or money and while people did not have a place to stay, he had bought a flat which he did not even use
Iv) What does it mean to have an imperious manner with underlings?
a)To ignore them b)To be stoic around them
c)To openly humiliate them d)To not be affected by them e)To be domineering towards them
The most avid users of social-networking websites may be exhibitionist teenagers, but when it comes to more grown-up use by business people, such sites have a surprisingly long pedigree. LinkedIn, an online network for professionals that signed up its ten-millionth user this week, was launched in 2003, a few months before MySpace, the biggest of the social sites. Consumer adoption of social networking has grabbed most attention since then. But interest in the business uses of the technology is rising. Many companies are attracted by the marketing opportunities offered by community sites. But the results can be painful. Pizza Hut has a profile on MySpace devoted to a pizza-delivery driver called Ted, who helpfully lets friends in on the chain's latest promotional offers (―Dude, I just heard some scoop from the Hut, ran one recent post). Wal-Mart started up and rapidly closed down a much-derided teenage site called The Hub last year. Reuters hopes to do better with its forthcoming site for those in the financial-services industry. Social networking has proved to be of greatest value to companies in recruitment. Unlike a simple jobs board, social networks enable members to pass suitable vacancies on to people they know, and to refer potential candidates back to the recruiter. So employers reach not only active jobseekers but also a much larger pool of passive candidates through referrals. LinkedIn has over 350 corporate customers which pay up to $250,000 each to advertise jobs to its expanding network. Having lots of people in a network increases its value in a ―super-linear fashion, says Reid Hoffman, LinkedIn's founder. He says corporate use of his service is now spreading beyond recruiters: hedge funds use it to identify and contact experts, for example. Jobster, a Seattle-based social-networking site, is entirely devoted to recruitment. Jobseekers can post their own profiles and tag their skills; these tags are then used to match candidates against jobs posted by employers. Unlike on LinkedIn, companies can set up private networks to ensure that the right kinds of people are alerted to openings and that the data they post remain under their control. Information needs to stay behind when a user leaves the company, argues Jason Goldberg, Jobster's founder. Where LinkedIn emphasises scale and Jobster emphasises specialisation, Visible Path, a startup based in New York, focuses on the strength of individual relationships. The firm analyses email traffic, calendars and diary entries to identify the strongest relationships that exist inside and outside a company. An obvious application is to generate leads: a salesman can use the service to identify who within his network has the closest links to a prospect, and request an introduction. Such techniques are also gathering momentum in ―knowledge management . IBM recently unveiled a social-software platform called Lotus Connections, due out in the next few weeks, that lets company employees post detailed profiles of themselves, team up on projects and share bookmarks. One manufacturer testing the software is using it to put inexperienced members of its customer-services team in touch with the right engineers. It can also be used to identify in-house experts. Software firms will probably start bundling social features of this kind into all sorts of business software. To work well in the business world, social networking has to clear some big hurdles. Incentives to participate in a network have to be symmetrical, for one thing. The interests of MySpace members—and of jobseekers and employers—may be aligned, but it is not clear why commission-hungry salespeople would want to share their best leads with colleagues. Limiting the size of the network can reduce its value for companies, yet confidentiality is another obvious concern for companies that invite outsiders into their online communities. ―Social networking sounds great in theory, but the business benefits are still unproven, says Paul Jackson of Forrester, a consultancy. But if who you know really does matter more than what you know, it has obvious potential.
Class and money has always strongly affected how people do in life in Britain, with well-heeled family breeding affluent children just as the offspring of the desperately poor tend to be poor. All that supposed to have ceased by the end of the Second World War, with the birth of welfare state designed to meet basic needs and promote social mobility. But despite devoting much thought and more money to improve the lot of the poor, governments have failed to boost those at the bottom of the pile as much as those on top of the pile have boosted themselves. Although the study found that some of the widest gaps between social groups have diminished over time (between men and women on pay, for example and between various ethnic minorities), deep-seated differences between haves and have-nots, persists blighting the life chances of less fortunate. Looking at earnings, income, education, employment or wealth, a similar pattern emerges. By the age of three, a poor child is outperformed in verbal ability and behavior by a rich one. Much of the difference is explained by ethnicity: unsurprisingly, poor children who did not speak English at home know fewer words in what is their second or third language. A child‘s ethnicity becomes less important as he grows: by the age of 16, but Chinese and Indian students are performing extremely very well at school. But throughout his classroom career how well a child does is dominated by how highly educated his parents are and how much money they bring home. Politicians of all stripes talk about equality of opportunity, arguing that it makes for a fairer and more mobile society and a more prosperous one. The difficulty arises in putting these notions into practice, through severe tax increases for the middle-class and wealthy, or expanding government interventions.
I) Which of these can be inferred from the passage as one of the key solutions to reduce the gap between various social groups?
(a)Encouraging ethnic social groups to converse in English even at home so as to develop their verbal ability
(b)Implementing higher tax rates for the middle class and wealthy so that the gap between rich and poor can be reduced
(c)By not disclosing the child's ethnicity and background of parents at school so as to remove bias from coming in
(d)Making the affluent people responsible for the poorer people, since they have been better at generating wealth than the government
II) What is the pattern noticed while studying social groups?
(a)The gap will only continue to grow since implementing policies is difficult
(b)The ethnicity of a child becomes less important as he grows
(c)The gap is somewhat narrowing, but there is still a long way to go
(d)A poor person always remains poor
III) In the context of the passage, what is the meaning of the term 'blighting'?
(a)Ruining (b)Improving (c)Illuminating (d)Imbalancing
The great event of the New York cultural season of 1882 was the visit of the sixty-twoyear-old English philosopher and social commentator Herbert Spencer. Nowhere did Spencer have a larger or more enthusiastic following than in the United States, where such works as ―Social Statics and ―The Data of Ethics were celebrated as powerful justifications for laissezfaire capitalism. Competition was preordained; its result was progress; and any institution that stood in the way of individual liberties was violating the natural order. ―Survival of the fittest —a phrase that Charles Darwin took from Spencer—made free competition a social as well as a natural law. Spencer was, arguably, the single most influential systematic thinker of the nineteenth century, but his influence, compared with that of Darwin, Marx, or Mill, was short-lived. In 1937, the Harvard sociologist Talcott Parsons asked, ―Who now reads Spencer? Seventy years later, the question remains pertinent, even if no one now reads Talcott Parsons, either. In his day, Spencer was the greatest of philosophical hedgehogs: his popularity stemmed from the Page 54 fact that he had one big, easily grasped idea and a mass of more particular ideas that supposedly flowed from the big one. The big idea was evolution, but, while Darwin applied it to species change, speculating about society and culture only with reluctance, Spencer saw evolution working everywhere. ―This law of organic progress is the law of all progress, he wrote, ―whether it be in the development of the Earth, in the development of Life upon its surface, in the development of Society, of Government, of Manufactures, of Commerce, of Language, Literature, Science, [or] Art. Spencer has been tagged as a social Darwinist, but it would be more correct to think of Darwin as a biological Spencerian. Spencer was very well known as an evolutionist long before Darwin‘s ―On the Origin of Species was published, in 1859, and people who had limited interest in the finches of the Galápagos had a great interest in whether the state should provide for the poor or whether it was right to colonize India.